All products and services used in a vehicle's repair and maintenance. Also called the replacement market.
A device that inflates in certain impacts to enhance occupant protection. Front and side are two common types of airbags. Side airbags are available in two types: seat-mounted and door-mounted.
Air injection reaction system A system that produces "cleaner" exhaust emissions by injecting fresh air into an engine's exhaust ports.
A wheel's proper geometric adjustment as specified by the manufacturer. Any variation can affect a vehicle's drivability and how it safely and comfortably handles the road.
All-Wheel Drive (AWD)
A drive system designed to improve traction in adverse road conditions or to provide greater driver control over the vehicle. All-Wheel Drive (AWD) is not designed for off-road use like Four-Wheel Drive (4WD), and does not require drivers to engage the system.
Anti-lock Braking System (ABS)
A computerized system that prevents wheel lockup skidding during braking and allows drivers to maintain greater control.
Automatic-dimming rearview mirrors
Mirrors with built-in sensors that dim gradually as the glare from rear-approaching headlights gets brighter.
A transmission that automatically changes gears without the driver's assistance to meet varying road and load conditions.
A vehicle's functional elements that attach to the frame, including: suspension, steering components, powertrain, brakes, and fuel system.
Child-seat tethers anchors
Anchors onto which a child safety seat's tethers (or straps) are attached.
A transparent protective coating that is sprayed over a vehicle's paint and adds gloss and depth.
Crash avoidance safety features
Safety features that help drivers avert an accident. Examples include traction control and anti-lock braking system (ABS).
A tube-like cavity in which the pistons move up and down compressing a fuel and air mixture. The number of cylinders and their configurations (V, in-line, etc.) determine the engine type. For example, a V6 engine has 6 cylinders.
Daytime running lights
Lights that automatically turn on whenever the ignition is activated. Some vehicles may include running taillights or other exterior lights.
A type of brake system that consists of a set of pads that press against a rotating disk. Disc brakes work more efficiently at high temperatures and during wet weather than drum brakes. Also called caliper disc brakes.
The combination of components that power the vehicle including the engine, clutch, and transmission. Also called the powertrain.
Drum brake A type of brake that has an iron casting shaped like a shallow drum that rotates with the wheel. Curved brake shoes are forced into contact with the inner periphery of this drum to provide braking.
Extended Service Contract
A vehicle service contract that specifies a provider pay for repairs covered in the agreement. With extended service plans, different time and mileage quantities can be selected to expand coverage (up to six years). Most extended service plans involve a preset deductible amount every time the vehicle is repaired.
Four-Wheel Drive (FWD)
A type of drive system that transfers engine power to all four wheels and enhances drivability in adverse driving conditions or in off-road terrain. Four-wheel drive is usually used part-time (off-road driving) and must be manually engaged by the driver.
Four-wheel independent suspension
A type of suspension that has all wheels mounted to separate suspension members with no rigid axle connecting them. Four-wheel independent suspension provides better handling and a smoother ride over rough surfaces.
Figures that identify how many miles a vehicle can travel per gallon of gasoline based on tests performed in compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA provides two different fuel economy estimates: one for city driving and one for highway driving.
A system that regulates the fuel flow and delivers fuel under pressure into an engine's combustion chamber. Fuel injection takes the place of a driver pumping the gas pedal when starting the vehicle.
Terminology that describes the behavior of a vehicle's directional control.
A device that helps limit head motion in the event of collision.
A mathematical measurement that represents an engine's power. High horsepower is an indication of high performance.
One unit of horsepower is equivalent to the ability to lift 33,000 pounds in one minute. Converting it into other units, 1 horsepower is equivalent to 746 watts per hour.
A transmission in which a driver selects gears by means of a hand-operated gearshift and a foot-operated clutch (also known as a "stick shift").
A transparent roof panel that slides open two different ways: fully or rear tilt-up.
Occupant safety features
These safety features help reduce the risk of injuries during a crash. Examples include the following: safety belts, front, side or ceiling airbags, child safety seats, and head restraints.
Options that allow shoppers to custom build their vehicles, but at additional expense. Also called add-ons.
An additional gear that reduces an engine's rpm while maintaining vehicle speed for better fuel economy and less engine noise, but reduced acceleration and hill-climbing ability.
Terminology that describes the behavior of a vehicle's acceleration. High horsepower is an indication of high performance.
Components that power a vehicle including the engine, drive shaft, transmission, and drive axle (also called a drivetrain).
An amount of money that shoppers can receive when selling their used vehicle.
Safety belt, adjustable upper belts
Devices, which permit the safety belt shoulder strap to adjust to accommodate a driver's size.
Safety belt, pretensioner
A device that immediately tightens the safety belt during a crash.
Safety belt, energy management features
Features that allow safety belt webbing to be pulled out of the retractor in a gradual and controlled manner in response to the occupant's forward momentum.
A feature that automatically maintains a set moving speed for a vehicle.
Features that are available on the vehicle at no extra cost to the buyer.
Tires that have a wraparound block-type tread design to provide increased traction in mud and snow. All-season tires may be used year-round as standard passenger vehicle or light truck tires.
Tires that are designed for both on- and off-road and can be used over a variety of surfaces. All-terrain tires are available on several light trucks, primarily on 4x4 models.
A turning force that is used to get a vehicle moving. Torque affects the vehicle's performance when accelerating, carrying heavy loads or towing a trailer.
A condition that reduces wheel spin to provide a more controlled acceleration.
A system that operates by detecting and controlling wheel spin. It helps maintain a vehicle's "steerability" and is especially useful on slippery surfaces.
An amount of money that shoppers can receive from a dealership when bringing in their used vehicles.
A term that describes the standard equipment available on a specific model.
An acronym for Vehicle Identification Number, which is a vehicle's serial number.
A label that appears on a new vehicle's window. It lists a vehicle's Manufacturer Suggested Retail Price (MSRP), standard equipment, optional equipment, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) gas mileage estimate, and basic vehicle descriptions like color and model year.